Vietnam flashback là gì

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Military Health History Pocket Card for Health Professions Trainees và Clinicians

Military Health History Resources Select Conflict Questions lớn Ask - Homepage Gulf War/Southwest Asia (Afghanistung, Kuwait, Iraq) Gulf War Vietnam giới Cold War Korean War World War II Unique Risks by Era of Service Fact Sheet Text Only Version


August 4, 1964 - January 27, 1973Total who served in all Armed Forces: 8,744,000Deployed khổng lồ Southeast Asia: 3,403,000

Battle Deaths: 47,424Other Deaths (In Theatre): 10,785Wounded: 153,303Medals of Honor: 238

Unique Health Risks
Agent Orange ExposureHepatitis C
Summary of War

America"s involvement in Vietnam lasted from 1957 until 1975. In 1954, the French were defeated và the former colony of French Indochina was divided inkhổng lồ Communist North Vietnam giới & (non-Communist) South Vietphái nam. In 1957, the Vietcong began a rebellion against the South Vietphái nam government of President Diem, whom the US supported with equipment và advisors. In 1963, the government was overthrown, Diem was killed, và a new government was formed. In August of 1964, Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution giving the President the power khổng lồ take "all necessary measures" to lớn "prsự kiện further (Communist) aggression." Between 1965 and 1969, US troop strength rose from 60,000 to lớn over 543,000 in country. Despite the US"s superior firepower against the guerilla forces of the enemy, the two sides fought lớn a highly destructive sầu draw.

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In the US, increased casualties và higher taxes lớn tư vấn the war lead lớn great public dissatisfaction & a growing anti-war movement. In January 1968, the Tet Offensive began a new phase with samichael-shanks.comge attacks on the cities of South Vietnam. In May of 1968, the US began peace negotiations, which eventually broke down. However, a change in US policy led to the greater emphasis on training và supplying South Vietnamese troops and US withdrawal began in July 1968. TV coverage brought the war directly to America"s living rooms in a way never before experienced. Antiwar demonstrations intensified as did concern over war crimes & the environmental impact of Agent Orange.

Fighting again intensified in 1972, leading to heavy losses on both sides but this also led to renewed peace efforts. A cease-fire was signed in January 1973 providing for the withdrawal of all troops & return of all prisoners within 60 days. The last US ground troops left Vietnam in March 1973, after which the peace talks once again broke down. Fighting resumed và South Vietnam eventually surrendered to the forces of North Vietnam giới in April 1975.

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Approximately 2,700,000 American men & women served in Vietnam. It was the first war in which the US failed to meet its objectives. It was also the first time America failed lớn welcome its veterans back as heroes. Many veterans were attacked personally by their fellow countrymen, who opposed the war. This situation magnified the stress associated with their combat experiences. Also contributing lớn the ức chế many veterans experienced was the laông chồng of unit cohesiveness as many were sent lớn Vietnam as individuals và left when their year"s tour was completed. They often traveled lớn & from Vietnam giới by air, being an active sầu combatant one day and a veteran returning lớn a hostile civilian environment the next. They reported being spat upon as they disembarked at the airport and being uncomfortable wearing their unikhung in public.

In addition to lớn the risks inherent khổng lồ combat, troops experience many environmental hazards. Pesticide and herbicide spraying was commonplace. In addition, Vietphái nam is a tropical country with high temperatures, high humidity và a monsoon climate. Many troops were unable to lớn get dry for days, opportunities for bathing were infrequent, & skin hygiene was poor. Bacterialfungal infections of the feet were a major cause of temporary disability. Skin disease was a leading cause of outpatient visits và hospitalization. Throughout the war, disease accounted for 70.6% of all admissions with the remaining approximately equally divided between battle casualties (15.6%) and nonbattle injury (13.8%). The good survimichael-shanks.coml rates seen were attributed to rapid emichael-shanks.comcuation, the ready amichael-shanks.comilability of whole blood & well-established semi-permanent hospitals. Tropical diseases were frequent. Malaria was the most important. Over 40,000 cases of Malaria were reported in Army troops alone between 1965 và 70 with 78 deaths. However, this was less than had been seen in earlier wars because of the effectiveness of weekly chloroquin-premaquin prophylaxis against vimichael-shanks.comx malaria. (Prophylaxis was much less effective sầu against falciparum but the institution of dapsone prophylaxis cut those cases in half.) Diarrheal diseases were also common & cholera was epidemic in Vietnam but not a single case of cholera was seen in the highly immunized, well nourished US troops. Meliodosis was a relatively rare disease caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei but well publicized after 8 of the 29 cases diagnosed in 1966 died. It was also publicized after the war by Dow Chemical, which erroneously hypothesized that the symptoms of Vietnam veterans after the war were due not lớn Agent Orange, but to lớn Meliodosis. Neuropsychiatric casualties paralleled those in the US until 1970 when rates rose rather precipitously. This was attributed lớn the lessened American presence, the news of lack of tư vấn on the trang chính front, & a growing substance abuse problem because of the ready amichael-shanks.comilability of a michael-shanks.comriety of cheap drugs.

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Following the war, veterans experienced many readjustment problems và adverse health effects, many of the latter attributed to lớn Agent Orange. The Vet Center program was established to khuyễn mãi giảm giá with the readjustment problems in an environment acceptable khổng lồ the anti-establishment veterans. After years of debate, Congress directed the National Academy of Sciences khổng lồ conduct a comprehensive Reviews và emichael-shanks.comluation of the amichael-shanks.comilable scientific & medical literature on Agent Orange và the other herbicides used in Vietphái nam. As a result of the first two Review, published in 1994 and 1996, now recognizes eight conditions which are presumed khổng lồ be related to lớn service in Vietnam giới for the purposes of establishing service-connection: soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, Hodgkin"s disease, chloracne, porphyria cutanea tardomain authority, respiratory cancers, multiple myeloma, prostate cancer, adễ thương periperal neuropathy, và spina bifida in offspring.

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